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Italian painter of the Mannerist period, arguably the most gifted and certainly the least conventional of Raphael’s pupils”, who was best known for his now-vanished paintings on the facades of Roman houses, usually in grisaille; his style was highly individual, extremely free in technique, and powerful in expression; born Caravaggio (ca 1499), died Messina (1543) robbed and murdered by an assistant, Tonno Calabrese; unrelated to the later painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571–1609/1610).

One of the leaders of a group of Dutch architects who created a restrained architectural style that was suited to the social and political climate of the Netherlands; born Haarlem (1595), died Huis Randenbroek, near Amersfoort (1657).

Italian artist of the Lombard school; painted portraits and church decorations; born Cremona (1522), died Reggio (1591); although not directly related to Galeazzo Campi (1477–1536) or his sons, he was an assistant to Giulio Campi (p.

Italian theorbo player, composer, poet, book collector and artist; he led an adventurous life that involved much travel after involvement in the murder of his brother; born Modena (ca 1581), died 1649.

Italian artist, equally at home on an intimate scale and in monumental works, in rustic, genre and in the grand manner; his works abound in animals; inventor of the monotype technique – a single print made from an un-incised cooper plate painted in oils or printer’s ink; born Genoa (1609), died Mantua (1670).

Italian painter who was described as dressing in high fashion, but behaving with a low reputation; his style was eclectic and included influences from Caravaggio and the Bombaccianti; born Rome (1585), died Rome (1653).

Italian painter and etcher known for his religious, mythological, and allegorical paintings and also decorative friezes, but his most original works are his small bacchanals, indebted to Titian and to Testa, whom he interpreted with wit and a melancholy charm; active predominantly in Verona, also in Venice and Padua; born Venice (1611), died Verona (1674).

Italian painter, one of a group of artists working in Bergamo and Brescia who observed reality with an unusual freshness and directness; painted religious subjects and portraits but was most distinguished as a painter of genre and low-life scenes which included many pictures of beggars and vagabonds ( Russian-born artist, book-illustrator and designer of stained glass and theatrical costumes, active mainly in Paris and later in the USA; he combined images from the Jewish life and folklore of his native Russia with those from the Bible to create a highly distinctive style remarkable for its sense of fantasy; born Pestkovatik, Belorussia (1887), died Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France (1985).

Polish-German painter, draughtsman and engraver, he was particularly prolific as a book illustrator and executed an enormous number of etchings and drawings, many of which, apart from their technical skill, are valuable as social documents; he became Director of the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Berlin in 1797; born Danzig (1726), died Berlin (1801).

French engraver, etcher and draughtsman of prodigious output who combined the sophisticated techniques and exaggerations of late Mannerism with witty and acute observation; one of the chief exponents of the bizarre and grotesque, much in vogue in the reign of Louis XIII; born and died Nancy (1592–1635).

Flemish painter whose oeuvre is composed almost exclusively of religious works ranging in size from vast altarpieces to small devotional pictures on copper; born Antwerp (1540), died Bologna (1619). Italian sculptor, working in textiles, clay, metal; an exponent of the Arte Povera movement which attempted to remove art from its pedestal, to design art with more simple and modest means and authentic materials, creating ephemeral works that strove for a new active inclusion of the viewer through actions and performances; born Bologna (1943).

Spanish (Catalan) Gothic painter in the circle of Jaume Cirera; he trained almost certainly in the workshop of the brothers Serra and thus a painter of conservative tastes in the Italianate Gothic style rather than the emerging early International Gothic of his contemporaries Lluís Borrassà and Joan Mates; active Barcelona 1349–1432.